This report, published by the Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA), explores the gender dimension of the popular movements that have swept a number of Arab cities. It begins by asserting the centrality of gender in the uprisings and analyzes the different facets of women’s participation, as well as the mechanisms used by women to mobilize in different countries and the challenges they have faced. Using specific examples, the paper then explores the different means utilized by previous and emergent regimes to suppress women’s participation and refocus the discourse around issues of morality. The paper also discusses the different approaches used by women to fight back against the injustices carried out against them during and after the uprisings. It concludes by outlining the key challenges faced by Arab women today and opportunities they can benefit from as they work towards greater gender justice as part of a transition towards democracy.